Calendula oil (Calendula officinalis) is extracted by maceration of Marigold flower heads and infusion in another carrier base such as sunflower, sesame or jojoba. Originating in the Mediterranean its bright yellow to orange flowers are seen blooming in gardens and in the wild all over the world. It is one herbal remedy that has come down through the ages as being an oil packed with molecules useful for topical application. In Hindu culture, marigold flowers are used to adorn places of worship and in garlands.
General: The calendula/marigold has many uses in skincare, health and wellbeing and in medical salves. The oil is rich and deep orange in colour with powerful anti-oxidant and antimicrobial properties.
Food and Drinks: In teas for soothing and relieving swelling, Calendula teas are also useful for soothing allergic reactions both topically and internal; the fresh petals can be added to salads giving a fresh peppery taste.
Spa: This is a powerful skin reparative carrier oil that helps to support cell rejuvenation and skin health. It is one herbal remedy that has come down through the ages as being an oil packed with molecules useful for topical application. or in a jar with a carrier oil the flowers steep into the oil forming a wonderful massage oil. It is a rich oil so needs to be diluted with other lighter carriers.
Cold pressed Camellia Oil (Camellia sinensis) also known as Tea Seed Oil is highly recommended for skin and hair care products. Known as Camellia sinensis, the plant grows in Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, China and Japan. It is extracted from the seeds by cold pressing, it is rich in Vitamin A,B E, Fatty acids, polyphenols, and oleic acid (80%).
Product manufacturers: It has great penetration qualities with squalene nourishing and supporting the skin, reaching the roots of hair to provide nutrients improving hair strength and growth. For hair oils it can be used to take nutrients deeper down the hair shaft to maximise therapeutic effects for the hair root. For face creams use Camellia to take actives deeper into the layers of the skin where most needed.
Spa: Camellia Oil is a popular component in face creams and hair care products and is an excellent hand and nail emollient. A light oil Camellia makes an excellent facial oil for massage or as a face serum mixed with other carrier and essential oils. It is astringent and does not clog pores.
Pets: Make a fine spray to use after your pets bath, spray lightly over skin and fur and massage in, then brush well. Their coats will be shiny and healthy and any irritated skin conditions will improve.
Castor oil (Ricinis Communis) also known as Palma Christi or Hand of Christ. A historical marvel, Castor Oil originated out of Africa with records of its use dating back thousands of years to ancient Egypt. It has been a popular product among the cosmetic industry for ages. It is cold pressed, viscous with a slight odour and serves beautifully as a lubricator, and although thick is readily absorbed by the skin’s outer layers. It contains around 90% ricinoleic acid which unusually for a fatty acid mixes well with water.
Spa: Castor makes an ideal base for essential oils. It can be used as a deep cleansing oil to remove deep dirt and cell debris.
Product manufacturers: Its nature makes it a common ingredient in soaps making transparent soap bars, bath bomb and hair care products particularly shampoos.
Latin Name: Cinnamomum zeylanicum Everyone recognises the familiar aroma of sweet cinnamon which triggers memories of baked pastries and of festive aromas of Easter Hot cross buns and Christmas blends. There are three main oils from the bark or the leaves, and lesser known root oil. Here we discuss the bark oil which is intensely aromatic. This oil can sometimes be confused with Cassia oil which is a different essential oil. The bark oil is extracted by steam distillation of the dried bark yielding a powerful aroma with a sweet warming spicy note that lasts a long time. As it dries out a powdery note remains, this oil lingers and is so impactful that when blending a little is more. Traced back to ancient historical references like the Bible cinnamon is believed to be introduced as with many spices to Europe via the ancient spice and trade routes. Pharmaceutical: Due to its powerful aromatic profile cinnamon is often used to mask unpopular smells and flavours. In Germany it is used in digestive preparations for its soothing, carminative properties. Food & drinks: Widely used in cooking and baking, Cinnamon is also one of the ingredients in popular cold drinks. Inviting aromas of baked Danish pastries, hot cross buns and powdered on custard tarts are smells that entice buyers into the stores. Used in Teas and infusions to settle digestive upset. Mixologist usually use the actual bark in their drinks and cocktails rather than the oil and infusions are often created with...
Latin Name: Cymbopogon winterianus
Intensely refreshing, lemon scented grasses which grow in tropical climates with a root system that can withstand droughts and allow growth in a variety of soil conditions. The long, narrow leaves of the grass are steam distilled to give a sweet, powerfully lemony aroma. The Java citronella has a stronger lemon note than the Sri Lankan citronella and as both grow prolifically this oil is relatively cheap to produce.
Perfumery: Traditionally used for its fragrance in perfumes and colognes, it is also used for fragrancing many household products. Often used to adulterate Rose and Geranium oils due to its geraniol content.
Cosmetics & toiletries: used in soaps and lemon fragranced products for its cheapness and is also used for its anti-insecticide properties in sprays, candles and other deterrent products. Citronella is antiseptic but can overwhelm a product with its fragrance, so use this oil sparingly. Not often used in aromatherapy, but when used its uplifting refreshing aroma revives nervous exhaustion.
Methyl Eugenol content will dictate the use of this oil on the skin.
Native to the Mediterranean Basin, Salvia Sclarea is a perennial flowering herb. It flourishes in high-temperature areas, found growing extensively in Europe, Russia, UK and USA. The oil is extracted from the flowering heads and leaves of the plant, giving a refreshing, fruity, herbaceous, floral, warm aroma profile. Clary sage is rich in esters contributing not only to its fruity aroma but to its relaxing, soothing and sedating properties.
It’s refreshing aroma makes it an appealing prospect as a skin balm. It is also used in diffusers during aromatherapy treatment. The oil has numerous therapeutic benefits particularly for women’s health. It also helps with kidney and digestive disorders.
Perfumery: Clary Sage is used in cosmetic fragrances, and as a flavouring agent in food and beverages.
Spa: Immensely euphoric yet wonderfully relaxing, clary sage is a great antidepressant, balancing and toning, soothing the mind and easing stresses and tension.
Midwifery: Clary sage must not be used during pregnancy as it stimulates the uterus, however it is a brilliant oil to be used during childbirth for that reason.
Latin Name: Eugenia Caryophyllus
Clove bud oil is a yellow oil extracted by distillation from the flower buds and has a strong, sweet characteristic clove spicy note. Clove bud oil has a range of Eugenol content between 91-95% which is extremely high so caution is advised when using it in skincare. Cloves were imported to Europe via the spice route in early civilisations eventually arriving in Zanzibar where the largest clove exports are now from. Classically used in ancient medicines to ward off disease like the orange with clove buds in it during the plagues of the Middle Ages. Renowned for its use to soothe toothache, clove has powerful numbing properties.
General: Antiseptic, antimicrobial, deodorising and renowned for its localised numbing effect used in dentistry for toothache, these properties make this oil a must have in the pharmaceutical world.
Spa: Due to its irritancy on the skin, it is not usually found in aromatherapy. However, it is used for Festive diffuser blends and are a warming signature fragrance for some Spas.
Pharmaceutical: Found in many dental preparations and in muscular liniments for its powerful effect on soothing everyday muscular aches and pains or post injury to numb the area allowing time to rest and recuperate
Dentistry: For localised numbing to soothe pain due to toothache. Mouth washes and gargles for maintaining oral health. Due to its strong antimicrobial powers, it is often used to line a cavity before filling.
Do not use near children and during pregnancy.
Fractionated Coconut Oil botanically known as Cocos nucifera is transparent, odourless, absorbent and light carrier oil that will help to increase essential oil distribution.
General: Fractionated Coconut Oil, a very light emollient that softens and hydrates dry skin. The light texture absorbs easily onto skin and leaves skin feeling silky and smooth being greasy or blocking pores. Fractionated Coconut Oil should be used when applying strong essential oils topically to help reduce skin sensitivity.
Spa: For use when soft, light texture is required
Product Manufacturers: It is also a popular component in haircare and skincare for dry skin conditions.
Food and Drink: A relatively healthy vegetable oil without the nutty aroma often given by other types.
Latin Name: Mentha arvensis
Also known as Japanese mint. This is a herb native to Europe, China and Japan, although it presence is now quite widespread. Extracted from the flowering heads and leaves by steam distillation and has a very high Menthol content between 70-95%. It has a strong, menthol fresh sweet note and is often dementholised to reduce the high menthol content.
Pharmaceutical/Medicinal: Used in cough syrups, lozenges because of its menthol content. Found in congestion relieving inhalation products, and muscular ointments and gels for its soothing effect on overworked or painful muscles and joints. Cornmint is primarily used commercially for its menthol yield.
Aromatherapy: Use peppermint or spearmint instead.
Food &Drinks: Commercially used for flavouring confectionery, chewing gum and liqueurs.
Cosmetics & Toiletries: Cornmint is often used in soaps, toothpastes, mouthwashes, detergents and in cosmetics products where menthol is required.
Perfumery: Cornmint is used in industrial fragrancing rather than for general perfumes, although it does have a role in fragrances.
Eucalyptus Globulus Oil comes with great healing power. It is extracted from fresh or partly dried leaves and is steam distilled to yield a fresh camphoraceous cephalic oil. Eucalyptus globulus is one of 600 species within the Eucalyptus family. The globulus variety is the most common and most recognised Eucalyptus oil. High in 1,8-cineole which is an activity found within the oil with anti-microbial, antiseptic, expectorant and highly anti-bacterial properties. Refreshing, cleansing, energising Eucalyptus has multiple uses not least using its camphoraceous aroma profile.
General: Used in food flavourings, drinks, soaps, gargles and throat lozenges. It is also used in industrial detergents and disinfectants. Not often used in perfumery.
Medical: Eucalyptus is used extensively in medicines for inhalation, throat lozenges. It is commonly used across households for cold and flu relief in vaporisers or just as drops on tissues.
Spa: Eucalyptus has many therapeutic properties which makes it a popular oil to use in aromatherapy treatments. Use in a footbath with peppermint, mix into a massage blend for sports activities and post exercise, use in diffusers to sterilise a treatment room, refresh and revive changing room.
Latin Name: Eucalyptus Kochii
Eucalyptus Horistes is a smaller tree with a canopy of leaves and branches native to Western Australia. It has a grey smooth bark with fibrous rough bark at the base of the tree. The oil has a typical eucalyptus aroma with a strong, refreshing, zingy camphoraceous note, and is steam distilled from the leaves. It is also known as Eucalyptus Borealis and has a high level of 1,8-Cineole in the oil, therefore it is considered to have powerful antiseptic, antimicrobial, antibacterial and insecticidal properties.
General: A stimulating, deodorising oil used for air purifiers, refreshing pot pourri, insect repellent sprays.
Food and Drink: Used for flavouring baked goods, confectionary and beverages due to its spicy cooling taste.
Cosmetics/Toiletries: used in creams and lotions for its cooling minty smell. Makes a good anti-mosquito spray or body oil diluted with fractionated coconut carrier oil.
Pharmaceutical: due to its powerful medicinal properties it is often used in cough syrups to suppress coughs, in mouthwashes, for nasal inhalation and in throat lozenges.
Spa: Generally used like other Eucalyptus oils but due to its high cineole content it makes great blends to support the respiratory system and the skin, and its cooling sensation makes this an ideal oil for muscular and joint support post exercise.
Latin Name: Pelargonium Graveolens It is believed that Geraniums originated in South Africa, but were then taken and introduced to European countries where the plants are cultivated extensively. Geraniums appear as the signature plant with flowers in many Mediterranean destinations. Cultivation and hybridisation of the original plants occurred, and geraniums are now cultivated for the oils in many countries of the World namely Reunion (known for the Bourbon Geranium), China which is similar to the Bourbon, Egypt and Morocco which yields a very different oil. Geranium oil is steam distilled from the leaves and stems of Pelargonium graveolens plant. The oil has a yellow, slightly green oil but has a beautiful sweet rosy, herbaceous aroma profile used often to extend the rose note in blends and perfumes. Softer and rounder inn profile than the Bourbon Geranium which has a more pronounced leafy rosy scent. The Bourbon variety is still considered to be the best in its species, however it depends on what it is used for. General: Geraniums are referred to in many ancient scripts, Discorides mentioned it in Materia Medica, the Romans used them, and it appears in Culpeper’s Herbal remedy book. In olden times it was used medicinally to soothe the smooth muscle of the digestive system, now it is known for different therapeutic effects across a number of industries. Spa: Geranium oil is to balance oiliness in oily combination and problem skin types, it has diuretic properties which makes it a valuable decongesting addition to slimming body...
An environmentally conscious product, Grapeseed Oil (Vitis vinifera) is a by-product of the wine and juice industry. The oil is cold pressed from the seeds, light and virtually odourless although the organic varieties can be a darker green oil with a slight odour. High in Vitamin E, chlorophyll, packed with anti-oxidants and proanthocyanidin, this versatile oil supports and strengthens the collagen and elastin structures of the skin and joints. Grapeseed is full of Omega 6 fatty acid linoleic acid which allows this extremely light oil to penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin, leaving the skin smooth.
Spa: Grapeseed is an astringent oil and is known for its tightening and toning power to the skin and its underlying tissues, so is an excellent oil for slimming massage protocols. It is light and absorbs easily making it a lovely oil for oily or combination skin types. It can also be used as a light cleansing oil.
Product Manufacturers: It is also a popular component in creams, lotions and shampoos as it is a relatively cheap component.
Food and Drink: Grapeseed oil is used a lot in culinary arenas, making light flavoursome salad dressings and due to its high smoke point it is used when a high temperature for cooking is required.
Native to India and South eastern Asia although now it has adapted to more gentle terroir and is seen to grow easily in Mediterranean, North African and Iran, Afghanistan and Kashmir. Most of jasmine grandiflorum is grown and extracted in Egypt nowadays. Soft white and pink flowers exude this classical aroma known and loved by many, both male and female. The flowers are collected in the early morning similar to the J sambac and solvent extraction is carried out shortly afterwards to maximise yield of the oil. Its aroma profile is intense, floral, warm with a tea note underneath. Molecular structures that contribute to the jasmine’s animalic notes are indole and cis-jasmone but its greatest asset is benzyl acetate.
Same uses and therapeutic properties as J. sambac although the grandiflorum has a different more, dry scent, the anmalic not can be off putting to those sensitive to it. Used extensively in male and female fragrances.
The evolution of Jojoba Oil (Simmondsia chinensis)has played a massive role in the preservation of whale lives. It was discovered as a substitute for sperm whale oil, putting a stop to killing whales for harvesting the oil. Not strictly an oil but a wax, produced via cold pressing, Jojoba Oil resembles the skin’s natural oil in sebum.
Spa: Jojoba is readily absorbed and used by the skin to restructure, to act as a barrier preventing moisture loss without clogging the pores, and to balance the skin’s own sebum flow. It is a useful oil for promotion of a healthy skin particularly where congestion and over productive oiliness is a problem on the face. Jojoba due to its very makeup, supports a healthy acid mantle protective layer on the skin preventing bacterial imbalances. Due to these qualities, it is used extensively in hair and skincare products.
Product manufacturers: The thick butter is used in the production of creams, hand products and hair conditioners.